Overview of Lithographic processes
BALTFAB is orientated to alternative patterning methods using laser ablation and surface functionalization.
|Technique||Minimum feature size||Working area||Process speed||Applications|
|Dip Pen Nanolithography (DPN)||<50 nm||~50×50 mm2||Single tip 0,2-5 µm/s, highly scalable.||Most of the standard lithographic applications. Direct deposition of conducting and bifunctional compounds, nanoparticles, DNA, proteins, etc. In situ chemical reactions. Multilayer assembly.|
|Microcontact Printing (μCP)||~100 nm||<100×100 mm2||Centimeters-sized layouts can be replicated in ~ tens of seconds||Most of the standard lithographic applications. Direct deposition of conducting and bifunctional compounds, nanoparticles, proteins, etc. In situ chemical reactions. Microfluidics.|
|Piezoelectric InkJet Printing||~30 µm; (~250 nm if combined with self-assembly)||200×200 mm2||Single nozzle <3 mm/s, ~100nL/s, scalable.||Most of the standard lithographic applications. Direct deposition of conducting and bifunctional compounds, polymers, nanoparticles, DNA, proteins, etc. In situ chemical reactions. Microfluidics.|
|Laser Direct Writing (LDW)||3-5 µm||200×200 mm2||Up to 2 m/s with XYZ stages; 20 m/s with galvoscanners||Thin-film structuring. Selective and localized modifications of surface.|
|Ultrashort Pulse Laser Ablation (ULA)||15 µm||100x200x200 mm2||Material dependent 1000-100000 µm3/s||3D microfabrication; micromoulds. Microfluidics.|
|Laser Beam Interference Ablation (LBIA)||Period ~ wavelength; 100-200 nm||0.5×0.5 mm2||1000 µm2/shot||2D patterning of thin films and surfaces; surface modification.|
|Colloidal Nanolithography||<10 nm||<100×100 mm2||N/A||Nanoparticle arrays, biomaterials, nanoplasmonics, etc.|
|Laser-Assisted Multicomponent Patterning||See LDW and LBIA, respectively||See LDW and LBIA, respectively||See ULA and LBIA, respectively||Arraying of different chemical functionalities on solid substrates. Design of bio-arrays.|
|Optical Microscopy- Based Photolithography||~200 nm||<100×100 mm2||Slower than in µCP.||Standard lithographic applications. For rapid prototyping, reference structures, etc.|
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